## FAQ for LaTeX Authors

1. How do I add line numbers to my paper? How do I fix line numbering around equations?

The line numbering commands are included in the ametsoc.cls file and version 3.2 of ametsoc.sty. If you are not using ametsoc.cls or ametsoc.sty (and we strongly recommend that you do), you need to add the \usepackage{lineno} and \linenumbers commands to your .tex file before the \begin{document} command and after any \usepackage{amsmath} commands. To correct the line numbering around display equations, you must add the following snippet of code to your .tex file or to the end of the .sty file you are using:

\newcommand*\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno[1]{%
\expandafter\let\csname old#1\expandafter\endcsname\csname #1\endcsname
\expandafter\let\csname oldend#1\expandafter\endcsname\csname end#1\endcsname
\renewenvironment{#1}%
{\linenomath\csname old#1\endcsname}%
{\csname oldend#1\endcsname\endlinenomath}}%
\newcommand*\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno[1]{%
\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno{#1}%
\patchAmsMathEnvironmentForLineno{#1*}}%
\AtBeginDocument{%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{equation}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{align}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{flalign}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{alignat}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{gather}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{multline}%
\patchBothAmsMathEnvironmentsForLineno{eqnarray}%}

If you would prefer a manual solution, then wrap each display equation with the linenomath environment. For example:

\begin{linenomath*}
\label{eq:4}
{\cal L}_{fw}[{\cal A}]\;=\;\sum_\alpha {\cal S}_\alpha

\end{linenomath*}

Note that use of the obsolete "$$" command for display math will also cause gaps in the line numbering. See FAQ #3. 2. I need a special font for math. What should I use? • For bold math for vectors and matrices, use \pmb. • For script letters, use \mathcal. • For double-line (blackboard) font, use \mathbb. 3. Can I use the “$$” command for display equations?

No, the “$$” command is obsolete and should never be used. The “$$” command (which is a plain TeX command) in your .tex file must be replaced with “$“ and “$”, \begin{displaymath} and \end{displaymath}, \begin{equation*} and \end{equation*}, or some other math display command. Note that use of "" will also cause gaps in the line numbering (see FAQ #1).

4. Can I use the hyperref package?

The AMS discourages authors from using the hyperref package within their LaTeX documents. Use of the hyperref package may prevent your paper from building a PDF in Editorial Manager and may result in your submission being returned to you for editing.

5. How do I add paragraph breaks in the abstract?
If you need to create separate paragraphs in the abstract, you can use a line break and the \indent command to give the appearance of separate paragraphs, e.g.,

\abstract{First paragraph text.\\
\indent Second paragraph text.}
6. How do I reference sections and subsections in text?

The AMS LaTeX template follows AMS style for section numbering, which means that subsections will be defined only by a letter/number and will not include the higher-level section/subsection number/letter (i.e., a. Subsection title and not 1.a. Subsection title).

If you are referencing sections within running text, you must include reference commands for both the section and the subsection, e.g.:

"as seen in section \ref{section1}\ref{subsection1a}."
which will result in
"as seen in section 1a."

Cross-referencing labels cannot be used for appendix sections as the numbering will be incorrect. Please use
plain text for appendix section callouts within the text of the paper.

7. My reference citations appear as question marks when building the PDF on my personal computer.

The BibTeX program is responsible for formatting the references. After running the LaTeX or pdfLaTeX command once, make sure you run the BibTeX command, then run the LaTeX or pdfLaTeX command TWO times to clear up any dependencies.

8. The titles in my references automatically change to lowercase. How do I fix this?

To retain capitalization in article or book titles, use curly braces around the letter/word/phrase you want to retain its capitalization (e.g., title = {Coexistence of equatorial coupled modes of {ENSO}}).

9. How do I lay out a table or figure in landscape?

Note: If you are using the ametsoc.cls file, the “rotating” package is already included.

• In order to lay out a table in landscape, you need to add the “rotating” package (\usepackage{rotating}) and then create the table using the “sidewaystable” environment instead of the “table” environment (e.g., \begin{sidewaystable} instead of \begin{table}).
• In order to lay out a figure in landscape, you need to add the “rotating” package (\usepackage{rotating}) and then create the table using the “sidewaysfigure” environment instead of the “figure” environment (e.g., \begin{sidewaysfigure} instead of \begin{figure}).
• You must also add the endfloat.cfg file to the folder in which your LaTeX document is located. This file is necessary so that the endfloat package will recognize any landscape tables or figures.

10. My tables are not showing up double spaced. How do I fix this?
• If you are using the ametsoc.cls file, the tables should appear double spaced.
• If you are using the ametsoc.sty file, this is a known issue, and it is okay to leave the tables single spaced. Your paper will be accepted with single-spaced tables.
11. My landscape table/figure is not showing up in my compiled PDF. How do I fix this?

You must add the endfloat.cfg file to the folder in which your LaTeX document is located. This file is necessary so that the endfloat package will recognize any landscape tables or figures.

12. My table is too large to fit on one page. How can I make it smaller or make it flow across multiple pages?

• You may apply commands such as \small or \footnotesize to make your caption or table font smaller and thus shrink the size of your caption/table. As long as the text is readable, it is fine to have smaller text.
• To split your caption and table across two pages, enclose each in separate table commands, as shown below:

\begin{table}[t]
\caption{Table caption here.}\label{table1}
\end{table}
\begin{table}
\begin{tabular}
. . . .
\end{tabular}
\end{table}

13. How do I add footnotes to a table?

Because of the endfloat package, the standard table footnote commands do not function properly. To work around this, simply insert footnote-sized text below the table and insert the corresponding superscript letters as needed throughout the table, for example:

\begin{table}[h]
\caption{Table caption here.}\label{t1}
\begin{center}
\begin{tabular}{lccc}
\topline
$N$ & $X$ & $Y$ & $Z$\\
\midline
0000 & 0000 & 0010$^a$ & 0000 \\
0005 & 0004 & 0012 & 0000 \\
0010 & 0009 & 0020 & 0000 \\
\botline
\end{tabular}
\end{center}
\footnotesize{$^a$ First footnote text.}
\end{table}

14. Can I use the subcaption and/or subfigure packages?

Use of the subcaption and subfigure packages is discouraged for submissions to the AMS. Figures with multiple panels should be submitted with all panels included in one figure file. Use of the subcaption/subfigure commands may prevent your paper from building a PDF in Editorial Manager and may result in your submission being returned to you for editing.

15. My figure and caption do not fit on the same page. How do I split them across two pages?

To put your figure and caption on separate pages, enclose each in separate figure commands, as shown below:
\begin{figure}[t]
\noindent\includegraphics[width-39pc,angle=0]{figure01.pdf}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}
\caption{Enter the caption for your figure here.}\label{f1}
\end{figure}

16. Citations and equation, table, figure, and section references in my figure captions result in an error. How do I fix this?

The \cite and \ref commands are “fragile” commands. They must be protected using the \protect command when used in a caption. For example:
\begin{figure}
. . .
\caption{The graph of the temperature profile given by \protect\ref{some_eqn} developed by \protect\citet{Anderson98}.}
\end{figure}

17. The appendix figure and/or table numbering is incorrect. How do I fix this?
• If you are using the ametsoc.cls file, please see the amsdocs.pdf file for instructions on how to handle appendix figures and tables.
• If you are using the ametsoc.sty file, this is a known issue, and it is fine to leave the table/figure numbering as is. The AMS copy editors will correct the numbering when your manuscript is accepted and goes through the production workflow.
18. The appendix figures/tables appear before instead of after the other figures/tables. How do I fix this?

The appendix figures and tables need to be physically placed at the end of the .tex document with the other figures and tables (instead of with the appendix text) in the order that they should appear (i.e., main text tables first, then appendix tables, then main text figures, then appendix figures).

19. How do I create a bulleted or numbered list?

To create a bulleted list, you should use the standard LaTeX itemize command, for example:

\begin{itemize}
\item First bullet text.
\item Second bullet text.
\end{itemize}

To create a numbered list, you should use the standard LaTeX enumerate command, for example:

\begin{enumerate}
\item First numbered item.
\item Second numbered item.
\end{enumerate}

20. How do I get accented letters to appear correctly in a reference?

To get accented letters such as “ñ” to appear correctly in a reference list, you must put curly braces around the entire command, not just around the letter, e.g., author={Ana Nu{\~n}ez}.

21. How do I add extra text (such as “e.g.,”) within a citation?

See the Citations section of the amsdocs.pdf file for instructions on how to add text within a citation.

22. Why are two sets of parentheses appearing around my citations?

The parentheses around the citations are a built-in feature of the natbib package. To prevent double parentheses, do not add your own parentheses around the citations.